CONSERVATION EDUCATION RESEARCH
The future of our world depends on choices people make. Conservation education is a key factor in what those choices are, and research provides the knowledge upon which education rests.
We have learned through our own observations and anecdotal feedback from attending students, teachers, parents, and community members that the program is effectively providing a quality field-based experience for all participants. However, this claim is not based on empirical evidence supported by research, or an evaluation model supported by reliable and valid evaluation tools.
Therefore, realizing the need for evaluating program effectiveness through an empirical process, the education committee set the course for research to be conducted to develop an evaluation model for doing just that. This work is directly correlated to the Boone and Crockett Club’s Conservation Committee’s desire to have a positive impact on assisting in the development of a strategy to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and value of conservation education throughout North America.
Assessing the Effectiveness of a Place-based Conservation Education Program by Applying Utilization-focused Evaluation
Alice “Lisa” B. Flowers, Ph.D., May 2007
Lack of personal connection to the natural world by most American youth builds reason for assessing effectiveness of conservation education programs. Place-based learning is important in helping youth understand how their personal and societal well-being are linked and dependent upon their local habitats. Across Montana 2277 students in grades 3 - 10 participate in an interactive year long fishing education program with their teachers called Hooked on Fishing (HOF).
The purpose of my study was to assess the effectiveness of HOF, a place-based conservation education program established in 1996, and modeled after the national Hooked on Fishing, Not on Drugs program. Using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent group study design, students received a pre-survey during the beginning of the program, a post-survey after the program, and an extended post-survey 12 to 14 weeks later. Teachers voluntarily participated in an Internet survey during May 2006, and program instructors voluntarily participated in a structured open-ended telephone interview in June 2006.
A key component of my study was the decision to conduct the evaluation process using an approach which included stakeholders in the development of the instruments to measure student outcomes. This approach is called utilization-focused evaluation and was developed by Michael Q. Patton. The motive of this approach is to promote the usability of the evaluation results. The results are considered to have a better chance to be applied by the program stakeholders to not only gauge program effectiveness, but to be used to improve the program.
Two research questions were: 1) does the frequency of outdoor experiences have significant affects on students' knowledge, skills, attitudes, and intended stewardship behaviors; and 2) does improved knowledge of local natural resources have significant affects on students' skills, attitudes and intended stewardship behavior.
Nonparametric statistical analyses calculated statistical significant results for most knowledge and skill outcomes in a positive direction of change with 2 - 3 HOF outdoor experiences. Attitudinal and intended behavior outcomes did not show similar results. Internet teacher survey and instructor interviews provided qualitative depth and insight to student self-reported responses.
An Evaluation of the Hooked on Fishing Program 2005-06 in Montana
Alice “Lisa” B. Flowers and Dave Hagengruber
Fish and wildlife agencies and conservation organizations are questioning whether their education programs are meeting program goals and objectives. As a result, they are interested in surveying participants to determine the extent to which those goals are being met. In May of 2005, the Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks aquatic education coordinator held a workshop with a group of teachers and instructors participating in its Hooked on Fishing program to discuss the need for an evaluation of the program. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of the program for teachers and their students and make recommendations for future changes.